language: Deutsch   Français   italiano   Español   Português   日本語   russian   arabic   norwegian   swedish   danish   Nederlands   finland   ireland   English  

Wholesale Shipping Info Payment Methods Contact Us

Welcome GUEST, PLEASE Sign In or Register
Shopping Bag:  (Your cart is empty)
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3

Nissan Urvan for sale - Price list in the Philippines | rolex india price list 2014

Nissan Urvan for sale in the Philippines Home Cars Nissan Cars Nissan Urvan Nissan Urvan E26 2012- More Photos P1,221,000 - P245,000 -
(270 prices) Production 1980 - present Also known as Nissan Caravan Nissan Urvan is powered by a four cylindered DOHC water-cooled diesel engine that is capable of displacing 105 BHP along with 154 ft lb of torque. Urvan features a rack and pinion steering system, while its engine is hooked on to a five speed manual transmission, aiding power delivery. Independent double wishbone torsion bar type suspension on its front end, along with a semi elliptical leaf spring rear suspension on its rear end is standard. Visit offical website Nissan cars Pricelist van cars Pricelist New & Used prices




New and Used Nissan Urvan prices in the Philippines 299 prices Sort Sort by Sort by Default Cheapest Year Kilometer Latest post Filter Location Location Generation Generation All (299) 2012- (124) 2001-2012 (140) 1986-2001 (3) 1980-1986 (0) Condition Condition All New (29) Used (270) DP / Assume 1 2004 nissan urvan escapade vs starex grandia MT P245,000

Year 2004 Gear Manual Fuel Diesel Distance 90,000-94,999km Condition Used Area NCR - Metro Manila Go to Shop 2 2008 Nissan Urvan Shuttle Van Diesel P268,000

Gear Manual Condition Used Area NCR - Metro Manila Go to Shop 3 Nissan Escapade P310,000

Year 2002 Gear Manual Fuel Diesel Distance Over 100,000km Condition Used Area Central Luzon - Bulacan Go to Shop 4 Nissan Urvan P310,000

Gear Manual Fuel Diesel Distance Over 100,000km Condition Used Area NCR - Metro Manila Go to Shop 5 Nissan Urvan escapade P325,000

Condition Used Area CAR - Benguet Go to Shop 6 nissan urban P330,000

Year 2006 Gear Manual Fuel Diesel Distance Over 100,000km Condition Used Area NCR - Metro Manila Go to Shop 7 Nissan Urvan For Sale P340,000

Year 1999 Gear Manual Fuel Diesel Distance Over 100,000km Condition Used Area Western Visayas - Negros Occidental Go to Shop 8 Used 2008 slzotpgv. breitling navitimer world replica swissNissan Urvan P348,000

Year 2008 Distance Over 100,000km Condition Used Go to Shop 9 Nissan Urvan 2004 2.7L M/T Diesel P350,000

Year 2004 Gear Manual Condition Used Area CALABARZON - Laguna Go to Shop 10 Nissan Urvan Escaped P350,000

Condition Used Area NCR - Metro Manila Go to Shop 11 nissan urvan P350,000

Condition Used Area NCR - Metro Manila Go to Shop 12 NISSAN URVAN P360,000

Year 2001 Gear Manual Condition Used Area Central Visayas - Cebu Go to Shop 13 Nissan urvan 365k 2009model P365,000

Year 2009 Fuel Diesel Condition Used Go to Shop 14 Nissan Urvan for sale P370,000

Year 2006 Gear Manual Fuel Diesel Condition Used Area Central Luzon - Nueva Ecija Go to Shop 15 Nissan Urvan for sale P370,000

Year 2006 Condition Used Go to Shop 16 2005 Nissan Urvan P378,000

Year 2005 Gear Manual Fuel Diesel Distance 75,000-79,999km Condition Used Area NCR - Metro Manila Go to Shop 17 Used 2007 Nissan Urvan P380,000

Year 2007 Condition Used Go to Shop 18 Used 2006 Nissan Urvan P380,000

Year 2006 Distance Over 100,000km Condition Used Go to Shop 19 Nissan Urban 2003 Diesel P380,000

Year 2003 Gear Manual Fuel Diesel Distance 90,000-94,999km Condition Used Area NCR - Metro Manila Go to Shop 20 Nissan Urvan P385,000

Gear Manual Condition Used Area Central Luzon - Bulacan Go to Shop View More 20 Prices

* Prices updated on Jul 24, 2017. * The prices listed have been converted from USD to PHP based on exchange rates of Jul 24, 2017. New Nissan Urvan prices 2017 for sale in the Philippines Nissan Urvan E26 2012- Nissan Urvan Cargo MT Price (New) : P1,221,000 Nissan Urvan Urvan Shuttle 15-Seater MT Price (New) : P1,227,000 Nissan Urvan Urvan 18-Seater MT Price (New) : P1,240,000 Nissan Urvan Escapade 12-Seater MT Price (New) : P1,418,000 Nissan Urvan Super Elite Escapade 10-Seater MT Price (New) : P1,498,000 Find a dealer Video of Nissan Urvan URVAN 2014

2008 Nissan Urvan/Caravan ANCAP Frontal Impact

Reviews of Nissan Urvan User Review : 3 Reviews exterior 4.0 interior 3.7 engine performance 4.7 travelling performance 4.7 ride quality 4.3 fuel efficiency 4.3 Total 4.3

Nissan Urvan!!! Having hard time to get a nice and big car this Nissan Urvan is for you. Know why? this van has a very wide space ... Read more

Rating : 4.0 Date : Jan 26, 2017 Review by L33nD3mapInt0

hi I wanna order this bus pleas ... Read more

Rating : 4.2 Date : Oct 24, 2016 Review by Victor Crump

Wais sa gasolina Our Nissan Nv350 was a wise car. I say wise because this NV350 caravan has a newly-developed YD25DDTi engine it ... Read more

Rating : 4.7 Date : Jun 23, 2015 Review by silent_snipeR Write a review on this product Read more reviews on this product Forum of Nissan Urvan

Location? May branch po ba kayo malapit sa Pasay?

Last updated : May 20, 2017 Posted by Janu Replies of This topic : 1 Replies

Interested buyer Meron ba nito sa bang Bataan? Saka paano bayaran, yung downpayment and buwanan bayaran?

Last updated : Apr 15, 2017 Posted by Gladiolus Replies of This topic : 1 Replies

Comprehensive Car Insurance in the Philippines Hi Guys, Just wanted to share this. You may now enjoy the cheapest on line motor car insurance ,Cheapest Comprehensive Auto Motor Car Insurance in the Philippines , quick and easy free quotation in just few steps for a minute, hassle free. They offer QBE ... Read more

Last updated : Mar 8, 2017 Posted by artlymolina Replies of This topic : 0 Replies

finding installment van hello po may installment po ba na nissan urvan sa cavite area magkno nmn po monthly

Last updated : Apr 2, 2017 Posted by Ann Quintanilla Timbang Replies of This topic : 4 Replies

Contact number. Can I have a contact number of the dealer as I'm interested to buy 1 or two cars please...thanks.

Last updated : Oct 8, 2016 Posted by Rpsc Forgotten Replies of This topic : 4 Replies Start a topic on this product View the forum on this product Top5 Nissan Cars 1 Nissan Urvan

Lowest Price (New) : P1,221,000

Lowest Price (Used) : P245,000

Nissan Urvan is powered by a four cylindered DOHC water-cooled diesel engine that is capable of displacing 105 BHP along with 154 ft lb of torque. 2 Nissan Sentra

Lowest Price (New) : P610,000

Lowest Price (Used) : P25,000

Nissan Sentra is known to return 30/39 MPG on the city/freeway. Its engine block is mated to a six speed auto mated CVT transmission system, improving performance and fuel economy. 3 Nissan GT-R

Lowest Price (New) : P4,790,000

Lowest Price (Used) : P4,700,000

The 2017 Model (Face-lift) was unveiled in New York on March 23. Despite having the same 3.8-liter twin turbo V6 engine, the improved 2017 Nissan GT-R gets an additional 20-horsepower giving it a total of 565-hp in addition the 2017 model also features new titanium exhaust,Active Sound Enhancement Technology, 6-speed dual-clutch gearbox, tuned suspensions and Active Noise Cancellation. 4 Nissan Navara

Lowest Price (New) : P941,000

Lowest Price (Used) : P128,000

Nissan Navara 2014 features in the popular commercial vehicle group due to its 2.5L-4x4 inline or 3.0L-V6 cylinder, with intercooled turbo-diesel, DOHC. 5 Nissan Skyline

Lowest Price (New) : P5,700,000

Lowest Price (Used) : P130,000

Nissan Skyline falls under sports as well as luxury car category, or it can be termed as a grand tourer. It has been in production since 1990. Most viewed ranking for Nissan Cars Top5 van Cars 1 Toyota HiAce

Lowest Price (New) : P1,326,000

Lowest Price (Used) : P120,000

Toyota HiAce is known to return approximately 32.1/32.5 MPG on the city/freeway. This vehicle is powered by a 2.5 L D4D diesel engine with greater performance. 2 Suzuki Multicab/Carry

Lowest Price (New) : P479,000

Lowest Price (Used) : P55,000

This small truck has got 1493cc of displacement with the help of 8 numbers of valve and is SOHC G15A type. 3 Mitsubishi L300

Lowest Price (New) : P610,000

Lowest Price (Used) : P85,000

Mitsubishi L300 offers several engine options from 1.4L I4 gasoline to 2.5L I4 diesel. Transmission varies between 3/4 speed automatic and 4/5 speed manual. 4 Hyundai Starex / Grand Starex

Lowest Price (New) : P1,688,000

Lowest Price (Used) : P130,000

Hyundai Starex/Grand Starex is powered by a 2.5 litre turbo diesel which is capable of producing 170 HP and 392 Nm of torque. 5 Nissan Urvan

Lowest Price (New) : P1,221,000

Lowest Price (Used) : P245,000

Nissan Urvan is powered by a four cylindered DOHC water-cooled diesel engine that is capable of displacing 105 BHP along with 154 ft lb of torque. Most viewed ranking for van
rolex india price list 2014

g shock replica watches in india
chinese replica watches quality
rolex submariner replica review
best replica watch china
rolex song clean lyrics               Menu Home Local Listings Web Listings Submit Local Listings Advertise rolex price list 2014 usa Web Listings

Prices for Rolex watches | buy a Rolex watch at a bargain ... On Chrono24 you can compare prices for 22,438 Rolex watches and find the price for a Rolex or buy a Rolex. ... Rolex new" Chrono24's ... United States US | USD ... rolex price list 2014 usa - Areaknowledge - Local Business ... rolex price list 2014 usa : Menu. Home. Local Listings. ... (2014 US price list) ... Rolex increased their price in Europe by approximately 7%. www..
www. SwissLuxury.Com - Rolex Watches at Discount Prices Personal service and a complete selection from Rolex, A. Lange & Sohne, Audemars ... Main Menu; Home; Watches; ... List Price: $14,050.00 Save ... Baselworld 2014: Rolex Cellini 2014 Price, Pics, Hands-on ... Baselworld 2014: Rolex Cellini 2014 Price, Pics, Hands-on. Home; Watches. ... Rolex Cellini 2014 price range is US$16350 to $ 20400! A tad too high you reckon? official rolex price list 2014 usa - Areaknowledge - Local ... official rolex price list 2014 usa : Menu. Home. Local Listings. ... ROLEX MASTER PRICE LIST, USA ... Rolex Oyster Perpetual Watch Catalogue 2014/2015 + Price List ...
www. Prices for Rolex Submariner watches | prices for ... On Chrono24 you'll find prices for 876 Rolex Submariner watches and can then buy one of the luxury watches at a ... Rolex Submariner new" ... United States US | USD . Rolex Cellini Dual Time Watch For 2014 Hands-On Rolex Cellini Dual Time Watch For 2014 Hands ... In the United States, the Rolex Cellini has certainly been among the least popular Rolex pieces ... but not the price. Rolex Price List 2015 - BloomWatches Rolex Price List 2015, 2015 Rolex Price List, Rolex Price 2015, 2015 Rolex Price, Rolex PriceList, gold Rolex Price List 2015, ... Contact us; Search the site... World of Luxury US Best prices & top watches brands! ... Rolex watches Jaeger LeCoultre or gold, platinum or stainless steel ... Watches shop online World of Luxury USA. Swiss Wrist | New Rolex Watches for Men | Used Rolex ... Men's Rolex; Discover more. Shop By. Shopping Options. ... Man Used Rolex; Rolex Prices; ... Swiss Wrist is not affiliated with Rolex USA or Rolex SA Switzerland. Rolex | Master GMT Watches | ... Lowest Prices - Guaranteed ... ROLEX GMT-MASTER II WATCHES. ROLEX GMT-MASTER II . ... Moorpark, CA 93021, USA; Toll Free: 1.800.808.9928; International: +1.805 ... Pre-Owned Men's Rolex Watches. Buy & Sell Rolex Watches ... Our Price: $6,450 Rolex Oyster Perpetual Mens Watch 1005 ... (Rolex USA, Rolex S.A.). Cartier, IWC, Jaeger-LeCoultre, Panerai ... Rolex - Finest Watches Our Price: Call for price List Price: $20,500. Compare. Rolex Datejust 116139. ... Finest Watches is not affiliated with Rolex USA or any other brand listed on the ... Rolex Watch Collection - Rolex Swiss Luxury Watches Rolex watches are crafted from the finest raw materials and assembled with scrupulous attention to detail. Every component is designed, ... Luxury Fine Time View our full selection of rolex watches from ... About Us • Contact Us ... we sell are not under any obligation to service timepieces sold by LUXURY FINE TIME. 1 NEXT

Pricing From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation , search This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards . No cleanup reason has been specified. Please help improve this article if you can. (December 2008) ( Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Marketing Marketing Marketing management Key concepts Product marketing Pricing Distribution Service Retail Brand management Brand licensing Co-creation Account-based marketing Ethics Effectiveness Research Segmentation Strategy Activation Management Dominance Marketing operations Social marketing Identity Digital marketing Promotion Promotional content Advertising Branding Underwriting spot Direct marketing Personal selling Product placement Propaganda Publicity Sales promotion Sex in advertising Loyalty marketing Mobile marketing Premiums Prizes Corporate anniversary On-hold messaging Promotional media Printing Publication Broadcasting Out-of-home advertising Internet Display advertising Behavioral targeting Web banner Point of sale Merchandise In-game advertising Mobile advertising Native advertising Product demonstration Word-of-mouth Brand ambassador Drip marketing Visual merchandising New media v t e A price tag is a highly visual and objective guide to value

Pricing is the process whereby a business sets the price at which it will sell its products and services, and may be part of the business's marketing plan . In setting prices, the business will take into account the price at which it could acquire the goods, the manufacturing cost , the market place, competition, market condition, brand , and quality of product.

Pricing is a fundamental aspect of financial modeling and is one of the four Ps of the marketing mix . (The other three aspects are product, promotion, and place .) Price is the only revenue generating element amongst the four Ps, the rest being cost centers . However, the other Ps of marketing will contribute to decreasing price elasticity and so enable price increases to drive greater revenue and profits.

Pricing can be a manual or automatic process of applying prices to purchase and sales orders, based on factors such as: a fixed amount, quantity break, promotion or sales campaign, specific vendor quote, price prevailing on entry, shipment or invoice date, combination of multiple orders or lines, and many others. Automated systems require more setup and maintenance but may prevent pricing errors. The needs of the consumer can be converted into demand only if the consumer has the willingness and capacity to buy the product. Thus, pricing is the most important concept in the field of marketing, it is used as a tactical decision in response to comparing market situations.

Contents 1 Objectives of pricing 2 Pricing strategies 3 Pricing tactics 3.1 ARC/RRC Pricing 3.2 Complementary Pricing 3.3 Contingency Pricing 3.4 Differential pricing 3.5 Discrete pricing 3.6 Discount pricing 3.7 Diversionary pricing 3.8 Everyday low prices (EDLP) 3.9 Exit fees 3.10 Experience curve pricing 3.11 Geographic pricing 3.12 Guaranteed pricing 3.13 High-low pricing 3.14 Honeymoon pricing 3.15 Loss leader 3.16 Offset pricing 3.17 Parity pricing 3.18 Price bundling 3.19 Peak and off-peak pricing 3.20 Price discrimination 3.21 Price lining 3.22 Penetration pricing 3.23 Prestige pricing 3.24 Price signalling 3.25 Price skimming 3.26 Promotional pricing 3.27 Two-part pricing 3.28 Psychological pricing 3.29 Premium pricing 4 Methods of setting prices 4.1 Demand-based pricing 4.2 Multidimensional pricing 4.3 Micromarketing 5 Theoretical considerations in pricing 5.1 Price/quality relationship 5.2 Price sensitivity and consumer psychology 6 Approaches 7 Pricing mistakes 8 See also 9 References 10 External links and further reading

Objectives of pricing [ edit ]

The objectives of pricing should consider:

the financial goals of the company (i.e. profitability) the fit with marketplace realities (will customers buy at that price?) the extent to which the price supports a product's market positioning and be consistent with the other variables in the marketing mix

Price is influenced by the type of distribution channel used, the type of promotions used, and the quality of the product. Where manufacturing is expensive, distribution is exclusive, and the product is supported by extensive advertising and promotional campaigns , then prices are likely to be higher. Price can act as a substitute for product quality, effective promotions, or an energetic selling effort by distributors in certain markets.

From the marketer's point of view, an efficient price is a price that is very close to the maximum that customers are prepared to pay. In economic terms, it is a price that shifts most of the consumer economic surplus to the producer. A good pricing strategy would be the one which could balance between the price floor (the price below which the organization ends up in losses) and the price ceiling (the price by which the organization experiences a no-demand situation).

Pricing strategies [ edit ]

Marketers develop an overall pricing strategy that is consistent with the organisation's mission and values. This pricing strategy typically becomes part of the company's overall long -term strategic plan. The strategy is designed to provide broad guidance to price-setters and ensures that the pricing strategy is consistent with other elements of the marketing plan. While the actual price of goods or services may vary in response to different conditions, the broad approach to pricing (i.e., the pricing strategy) remains a constant for the planning outlook period which is typically 3–5 years, but in some industries may be a longer period of 7–10 years.

Broadly, there are six approaches to pricing strategy mentioned in the marketing literature:

Operations-oriented pricing: where the objective is to optimise productive capacity, to achieve operational efficiencies or to match supply and demand through varying prices. In some cases, prices might be set to de-market. [1] Revenue-oriented pricing: (also known as profit-oriented pricing or cost-based pricing ) - where the marketer seeks to maximise the profits (i.e., the surplus income over costs) or simply to cover costs and break even . [1] For example, dynamic pricing (also known as yield management is a form of revenue oriented pricing. Customer-oriented pricing: where the objective is to maximise the number of customers; encourage cross-selling opportunities or to recognise different levels in the customer's ability to pay. [1] Value-based pricing : (also known as image-based pricing ) occurs where the company uses prices to signal market value or associates price with the desired value position in the mind of the buyer. The aim of value-based pricing is to reinforce the overall positioning strategy e.g. premium pricing posture to pursue or maintain a luxury image. [2] [3] Relationship-oriented pricing : where the marketer sets prices in order to build or maintain relationships with existing or potential customers. [4] Socially-oriented pricing: Where the objective is to encourage or discourage specific social attitudes and behaviours. e.g. high tariffs on tobacco to discourage smoking. [5] Pricing tactics [ edit ]

When decision-makers have determined the broad approach to pricing (i.e., the pricing strategy), they turn their attention to pricing tactics. Tactical pricing decisions are shorter term prices, designed to accomplish specific short-term goals. The tactical approach to pricing may vary from time to time, depending on a range of internal considerations (e.g. such as the need to clear surplus inventory) or external factors (e.g. a response to competitive pricing tactics). Accordingly, a number of different pricing tactics may be employed in the course of a single planning period or across a single year. Typically line managers are given the latitude necessary to vary individual prices providing that they operate within the broad strategic approach. For example, some premium brands never offer discounts because the use of low prices may tarnish the brand image. Instead of discounting, premium brands are more likely to offer customer value through price-bundling or give-aways.

When setting individual prices, decision-makers require a solid understanding of pricing economics, notably break-even analysis , [6] as well as an appreciation of the psychological aspects of consumer decision-making including reservation prices , ceiling prices and floor prices . The marketing literature identifies literally hundreds of pricing tactics. [7] It is difficult to do justice to the variety of tactics in widespread use. Rao and Kartono carried out a cross-cultural study to identify the pricing strategies and tactics that are most widely used. [8] The following listing is largely based on their work.

ARC/RRC Pricing [ edit ]

A traditional tactic used in outsourcing that uses a fixed fee for a fixed volume of services, with variations on fees for volumes above or below target thresholds. Charges for additional resources (“ARC’s”) above the threshold are priced at rates to reflect the marginal cost of the additional production plus a reasonable profit. Credits (“RRC’s”) granted for reduction in resources consumed or provided offer the enterprise customer some comfort, but the savings on credits tend not to be equivalent to the increased costs when paying for incremental resources in excess of the threshold. [9] [10]

Complementary Pricing [ edit ] The purchase of a printer leads to a lifetime of purchases of replacement parts. In such cases, complementary pricing may be considered.

Complementary pricing is a collective term used to describe `captive-market' pricing tactics. It refers to a method in which one of two or more complementary products (a deskjet printer, for example) is priced to maximise sales volume, while the complementary product (printer ink cartridges) are priced at a much higher level in order to cover any shortfall sustained by the first product. [11]

Contingency Pricing [ edit ]

Contingency pricing describes the process where a fee is only charged continent on certain results. Contingency pricing is widely used in professional services such as legal services and consultancy services. [12] In the United Kingdom, a contingency fee is known as a conditional fee. [13]

Differential pricing [ edit ]

Differential pricing is also known as flexible pricing , multiple pricing or price discrimination is where different prices dependent on the service provider's assessment of the customer's willingness or ability to pay. [14] There are various forms of price difference including: the type of customer, quantity ordered, delivery time, payment terms, etc.

Discrete pricing [ edit ]

Discrete Pricing occurs when prices are set at a level that the price comes within the competence of the decision making unit (DMU). [15] This method of pricing is often used in B2B contexts where the purchasing officer may be authorised to make purchases up to a predetermined level, beyond which decisions must go to a committee for authorisation.

Discount pricing [ edit ] A discount is any form of reduction in price

Discount pricing is where the marketer or retailer offers a reduced price. Discounts in a variety of forms - e.g. quantity rebates, loyalty rebates, seasonal discounts, periodic or random discounts etc. [16]

Diversionary pricing [ edit ]

Diversionary Pricing is a variation of loss leadering used extensively in services; a low price is charged on a basic service with the intention of recouping on the extras; can also refer to low prices on some parts of the service to develop an image of low price.

Everyday low prices (EDLP) [ edit ] "Everyday Low Prices" are widely used in supermarkets

Everyday low prices refers to the practice of maintaining a regular low price-low price - in which consumers are not forced to wait for discounting or specials. This method is used by supermarkets. [17]

Exit fees [ edit ]

Exit Fees refer to a fee charged for customers who departs the service process prior to natural completion. The objective of exit fees is to deter premature exit. [18] Exit fees are often round in financial services, telecommunications services and aged care facilities. Regulatory authorities, around the globe, have often expressed their discontent with the practice of exit fees as it has the potential to be anti-competitive and restricts consumers' abilities to switch freely, but the practice has not been proscribed. [19]

Experience curve pricing [ edit ]

Experience curve pricing occurs when a manufacturer prices a product or service at a low rate in order to obtain volume and with the expectation that the cost of production will decrease with the acquisition of manufacturing experience. This approach which is often used in the pricing of high technology products and services, is based on the insight that manufacturers learn to trim production costs over time in a phenomenon known as experience effects . [16]

Geographic pricing [ edit ] See also Big Mac Index

Geographic pricing occurs when different prices are charged in different geographic markets for an identical product. [16] For example, publishers often make text-books available at lower prices in Asian countries because average wages tend to be lower with implications for the customer's ability to pay.

Guaranteed pricing [ edit ]

Guaranteed pricing is a variant of contingency pricing. It refers to the practice of including an undertaking or promise that certain results or outcomes will be achieved. For instance, some business consultants undertake to improve productivity or profitability by 10%. In the event that the result is not achieved, the client does not pay for the service. [20]

High-low pricing [ edit ]

High-low pricing refers to the practice of offering goods at a high price for a period of time, followed by offering the same goods at a low price for a predetermined time. This practice is widely used by chain stores selling homewares. The main disadvantage of the high-low tactic is that consumers tend to become aware of the price cycles and time their purchases to coincide with a low-price cycle. [21] [22]

Honeymoon pricing [ edit ]

Honeymoon Pricing refers to the practice of using a low introductory price with subsequent price increases once relationship is established. The objective of honeymoon pricing is to "lock" customers into a long-term association with the vendor. This approach is widely used in situations where customer switching costs are relatively high such as in home loans and financial investsments. [23]

Loss leader [ edit ]

A loss leader is a product that has a price set below the operating margin . Loss leadering is widely used in supermarkets and budget-priced retail outlets where the store as a means of generating store traffic. The low price is widely promoted and the store is prepared to take a small loss on an individual item, with an expectation that it will recoup that loss when customers purchase other higher priced-higher margin items. In service industries, loss leadering may refer to the practice of charging a reduced price on the first order as an inducement and with anticipation of charging higher prices on subsequent orders.

Offset pricing [ edit ]

Offset pricing (also known as diversionary pricing ) is the service industry's equivalent of loss leadering. A service may price one component of the offer at a very low price with an expectation that it can recoup any losses by cross-selling additional services. For example, a carpet steam cleaning service may charge a very low basic price for the first three rooms, but charges higher prices for additional rooms, furniture and curtain cleaning. The operator may also try to cross-sell the client on additional services such as spot-cleaning products, or stain-resistant treatments for fabrics and carpets. [12]

Parity pricing [ edit ]

Parity pricing refers to the process of pricing a product at or near a rival's price in order to remain competitive.

Price bundling [ edit ] Xbox price bundle price

Price bundling (also known as product bundling occurs where two or more products or services are priced as a package with a single price. There are several types of bundles: pure bundles where the goods can only be purchased as package or mixed bundles where the goods can be purchased individually or as a package. The prices of the bundle is typically less than when the two items are purchased separately. [24]

Peak and off-peak pricing [ edit ]

Peak and off-peak pricing is a form of price discrimination where the price variation is due to some type of seasonal factor. The objective of peak and off peak pricing is to use prices to even out peaks and troughs in demand. Peak and off-peak pricing is widely used in tourism, travel and also in utilities such as electricity providers. Peak pricing has caught the public's imagination since the ride-sharing service provider, Uber, commenced using surge pricing and has sought to patent the technologies that support this approach. [25]

Price discrimination [ edit ]

Price discrimination is also known as variable pricing or differential pricing .

Price lining [ edit ]

Price lining is the use of a limited number of prices for all product offered by a business. Price lining is a tradition started in the old five and dime stores in which everything cost either 5 or 10 cents. In price lining, the price remains constant but quality or extent of product or service adjusted to reflect changes in cost. The underlying rationale of this tactic is that these amounts are seen as suitable price points for a whole range of products by prospective customers. It has the advantage of ease of administering, but the disadvantage of inflexibility, particularly in times of inflation or unstable prices. Price lining continues to be widely used in department stores where customers often note racks of garments or accessories priced at predetermined price points e.g. separate racks of men's ties, where each rack is priced at $10, $20 and $40.

Penetration pricing [ edit ]

Penetration pricing is an approach that can be considered at the time of market entry. In this approach, the price of a product is initially set low in an effort to penetrate the market quickly. Low prices and low margins also act as a deterrent, preventing potential rivals from entering the market since they would have to undercut the low margins to gain a foothold. [26]

Prestige pricing [ edit ] Premium brands rarely discount due to the potential to tarnish the brand. Instead they offer gift packs to provide customers with value

Prestige pricing is also known as premium pricing and occasionally luxury pricing or high price maintenance refers to the deliberate pursuit of a high price posture to create an image of quality

Price signalling [ edit ]

Price signalling is where the price is used as an indicator of some other attribute. For example, some travel resorts promote that when two adults make a booking, the kids stay for free. This type of pricing is designed to signal that the resort is a family friendly operation.

Price skimming [ edit ]

Price skimming , also known as skim-the-cream pricing is a tactic that might be considered at market entry. The objective is to charge relatively high prices in order to recoup the cost of product development early in the life-cycle and before competitors enter the marktet. [26]

Promotional pricing [ edit ]

Promotional pricing is a temporary measure that involves setting prices at levels lower than normally charged for a good or service. Promotional pricing is sometimes a reaction to unforeseen circumstances, as when a downturn in demand leaves a company with excess stocks; or when competitive activity is making inroads into market share or profits. [27]

Two-part pricing [ edit ]

Two-part pricing is a variant of captive-market pricing used in service industries. Two part pricing breaks the actual price into two parts; a fixed service fee plus a variable consumption rate. Two- part pricing tactics are widely used by utility companies such as electricity, gas and water and services where there is a quasi- membership type relationship, credit cards where an annual fee is charged and theme parks where an entrance fee is charged for admission while the customer pays for rides and extras. One part of the price represents a membership fee or joining fee, while the second part represents the usage component. [28]

Psychological pricing [ edit ] Extensive use of the terminal digit 'nine' suggests that psychological pricing is at play Main article: Psychological pricing

Psychological pricing is a collective term that refers to a range of tactics designed to have a positive psychological impact. Price tags using the terminal digit "9", ($9.99, $19.99 or $199.99) can be used to signal price points and bring an item in at just under the consumer's reservation price . Psychological pricing is widely used in a variety of retail settings. [29]

Premium pricing [ edit ]

Premium pricing (also called prestige pricing [30] ) is the strategy of consistently pricing at, or near, the high end of the possible price range to help attract status-conscious consumers. The high pricing of a premium product is used to enhance and reinforce a product's luxury image. Examples of companies which partake in premium pricing in the marketplace include Rolex and Bentley . As well as brand, product attributes such as eco-labelling and provenance (e.g. 'certified organic' and 'product of Australia') may add value for consumers [31] and attract premium pricing. A component of such premiums may reflect the increased cost of production. People will buy a premium priced product because:

They believe the high price is an indication of good quality They believe it to be a sign of self-worth - "They are worth it;" it authenticates the buyer's success and status; it is a signal to others that the owner is a member of an exclusive group They require flawless performance in this application - The cost of product malfunction is too high to buy anything but the best - for example, a heart pacemaker.

The old association of luxury only being for the kings and queens of the world is almost non-existent in today’s world. People have generally become wealthier, therefore the mass marketing phenomenon of luxury has simply become a part of everyday life, and no longer reserved for the elite. [32] Since consumers have a larger source of disposable income, they now have the power to purchase products that meet their aspirational needs. This phenomenon enables premium pricing opportunities for marketers in luxury markets. [33] Luxurification in society can be seen when middle class members of society, are willing to pay premium prices for a service or product of the highest quality when compared with similar goods. Examples of this can be seen with items such as clothing and electronics. Charging a premium price for a product also makes it more inaccessible and helps it gain an exclusive appeal. Luxury brands such as Louis Vuitton and Gucci are more than just clothing and become more of a status symbol. (Yeoman, 2011).

Prestige goods are usually sold by companies that have a monopoly on the market and hold competitive advantage. Due to a firm having great market power they are able to charge at a premium for goods, and are able to spend a larger sum on promotion and advertising. [34] According to Han, Nunes and Dreze (2015) figure on “signal preference and taxonomy based on wealth and need for status” two social groups known as “Parvenus” and “Poseurs” are individuals generally more self-conscious, and base purchases on a need to reach a higher status or gain a social prestige value. [35] Further market research shows the role of possessions in consumer’s lives and how people make assumptions about others solely based on their possessions. People associate high priced items with success. (Han et al., 2010). Marketers understand this concept, and price items at a premium to create the illusion of exclusivity and high quality. Consumers are likely to purchase a product at a higher price than a similar product as they crave the status, and feeling of superiority as being part of a minority that can in fact afford the said product. (Han et al., 2010).

A price premium can also be charged to consumers when purchasing eco-labelled products. Market based incentives are given in order to encourage people to practice their business in an eco-friendly way in regard to the environment. [36] Associations such as the MSC’s fishery certification programme and seafood ecolabel reward those who practice sustainable fishing. Pressure from environmental groups have caused the implementation of Associations such as these, rather than consumers demanding it. The value consumer’s gain from purchasing environmentally conscious products may create a premium price over non eco-labelled products. This means that producers have some sort of incentive for suppling goods worthy of eco-labelling standard. Usually more costs are incurred when practicing sustainable business, and charging at a premium is a way businesses can recover extra costs. [37]

Methods of setting prices [ edit ] Demand-based pricing [ edit ]

Demand-based pricing , also known as dynamic pricing , is a pricing method that uses consumer demand - based on perceived value - as the central element. These include price skimming , price discrimination and yield management , price points , psychological pricing , bundle pricing , penetration pricing , price lining, value-based pricing , geo and premium pricing.

Pricing factors are manufacturing cost, market place, competition, market condition, quality of product.

Price modeling using econometric techniques can help measure price elasticity , and computer based modeling tools will often facilitate simulations of different prices and the outcome on sales and profit. More sophisticated tools help determine price at the SKU level across a portfolio of products. Retailers will optimize the price of their private label SKUs with those of National Brands.

An example of demand-based pricing is the Uber car-ride service company's use of an automated algorithm to increase prices to "surge price" levels, responding rapidly to changes of supply and demand in the market. By responding in realtime, an equilibrium between demand and supply of drivers can be approached. [38] [39] Customers receive notice when making an Uber reservation that prices have increased. [38] The company applied for a U.S. patent on surge pricing in 2013, though airlines are known to have been using similar techniques in seat pricing for years. [40] [41]

The practice has often caused passengers to become upset and invited criticism when it happens as a result of holidays, inclement weather, natural disasters or other factors. [42] During New Year's Eve 2011, Uber prices were as high as seven times normal rates, causing outrage. [43] During the 2014 Sydney hostage crisis , Uber implemented surge pricing, resulting in fares of up to four times normal charges; while it defended the surge pricing at first, it later apologized and refunded the surcharges. [44] Uber CEO Travis Kalanick has responded to criticism by saying: "...because this is so new, it's going to take some time for folks to accept it. There's 70 years of conditioning around the fixed price of taxis." [43] [45]

See also: Price gouging Multidimensional pricing [ edit ]

Multidimensional pricing is the pricing of a product or service using multiple numbers.